doctoral thesis
MODEL OF MARINE POLLUTION BY BLACK WATERS FROM VESSELS

Žarko Koboević (2015)
Sveučilište u Rijeci
Pomorski fakultet u Rijeci
Metadata
TitleModel onečišćenja mora crnim otpadnim vodama s plovila
AuthorŽarko Koboević
Mentor(s)Željko Kurtela
Abstract
U doktorskoj disertaciji istraženi su i analizirani najvažniji čimbenici koji imaju utjecaj na onečišćenje mora crnim otpadnim vodama s plovila. Istražena je podjela sanitarnih otpadnih voda na plovilima i njihov štetni utjecaj na ljude, živi svijet u moru i gospodarstvo. Utvrđeni su pokazatelji fekalnog onečišćenja mora. Istraženi su međunarodni, regionalni i nacionalni propisi kojima se regulira postupanje s crnim otpadnim vodama na plovilima i nedostaci u primjeni tih propisa. Istražena je instalirana oprema za prikupljanje i tretiranje crnih otpadnih voda i način na koji radi na najmanjim do najvećih plovila. Zatim su istraženi i analizirani preporučeni IMO i ISO modeli po kojima se procjenjuje rizik. Nakon analize utvrđeno je da se postojeći modeli ne mogu primijeniti za željenu procjenu rizika onečišćenja mora crnim vodama s plovila pa je postavljen izvorni model za procjenu. Nakon postavljanja provedena je primjena i određivanju razine rizika uz pomoć izvornog modela za pojedine tipove plovila. Izvorni model procjene rizika koristi se s više važnih čimbenika, poput indeksa rizičnosti za određene tipove plovila i indeksa osjetljivosti za pojedine lokacije. Pritom veličina svakog indeksa ovisi o ulaznim čimbenicima. Rezultati procjene rizika onečišćenja mora za raznovrsna plovila na različitim lokacijama dokazali su da je temeljna znanstvena hipoteza točna i da brodovi za kružna putovanja pripadaju skupini plovila s najmanjim rizikom, dok manja plovila, poput brodica i jahta, pripadaju skupini s najvećim rizikom za onečišćenje obalnog mora crnim otpadnim vodama. Ispravnost postavljenog modela provjerena je u ekperimentalnom dijelu rada, pri čemu se na različitim lokacijama odabranoga tipičnog akvatorija (dubrovačkoga), s prometom raznih plovila, uzorkovalo more tijekom 14 mjeseci i laboratorijski su se analizirali uzorci s obzirom na indikatore fekalnog onečišćenja mora. Na rezultate analize uzoraka i broj plovila određenog tipa na određenim lokacijama primijenjen je test znanstvene (statističke) metode. Analizom dobivenih rezultata utvrđeno je da postoji povezanost indikatora onečišćenja mora (fekalnih koliformnih bakterija) s manjim plovilima (brodicama i jahtama) na određenim lokacijama. Također je utvrđeno da nema takve povezanosti između brodova za kružna putovanja i bakterija na lokacijama gdje ti brodovi borave. Dakle, rezultati provedenih uzorkovanja mora i hi-kvadrat testova nedvojbeno su dokazali još jednom metodom ne samo temeljnu znanstvenu hipotezu, nego i ispravnost postavljenog modela za procjenu rizika onečišćenja mora crnim otpadnim vodama s plovila. Na kraju su dati prijedlozi za poboljšanje zaštite od takve vrste onečišćenja mora. Predloženo je donošenje novog propisa o zaštiti od onečišćenja mora fekalnim vodama s brodova, jahta i brodica pri plovidbi u unutarnjim morskim vodama i teritorijalnome moru. Predložene su mjere za županijsku upravu i lokalnu samoupravu, a vlasnicima plovila dan je prijedlog za poboljšanje opreme i postupanje s crnim otpadnim vodama na njihovim plovilima.
Keywordsvessels marine pollution black waters faecal coliform bacteria risk assessment multiplication matrix chi-square
Parallel title (English)MODEL OF MARINE POLLUTION BY BLACK WATERS FROM VESSELS
Committee MembersPavao Komadina (committee chairperson)
Željko Kurtela (committee member)
Josip Kasum (committee member)
Dragan Martinović (committee member)
Dean Bernečić (committee member)
GranterSveučilište u Rijeci
Pomorski fakultet u Rijeci
PlaceRijeka
StateCroatia
Scientific field, discipline, subdisciplineTECHNICAL SCIENCES
Traffic and Transport Technology
Maritime and River Traffic
UDK502/504
NATURAL SCIENCES
Environmental science. Conservation of natural resources. Threats to the environment and protection against them
656.6
APPLIED SCIENCES. MEDICINE. TECHNOLOGY
Transport by water
Study programme typeuniversity
Study levelpostgraduate
Study programmePostgraduate (doctoral) university study programme - Maritime Studies
Academic title abbreviationdr. sc.
Genredoctoral thesis
Language Croatian
Defense date2015-07-06
Promoted date2016-04-15
Parallel abstract (English)
The thesis studies and analyses the most important factors influencing marine pollution by black waters from vessels. Distribution of sanitary waste waters on board and their damaging effect onto people, marine life and economy have been explored. Indicators of marine pollution by faecal waters have been identified. International, regional and national regulations governing black water treatment on board have been analysed as well as non-conformities with the regulations. Equipment for collection and treatment of black waters on board was tested in operation on both the small and large vessels. The recommended IMO and ISO models for risk assessment were tested and analysed. After testing the existing models were found as inadequate for assessment of the risk of pollution by black waters from vessels, consequently, an original model was installed for risk assessment. After installation the original model was implemented for risk assessment on different types of vessels. The original risk assessment model utilizes several important factors, such as risk index for different types of vessels and sensitivity index for different locations. The size of each index depends on the input factors. The risk assessment results for marine pollution by different vessels on different locations confirmed the main scientific hypothesis, i.e. the cruise ships are in the low risk category, while smaller vessels, such as boats and yachts are in the high risk category for pollution of coastal seas by black waters. Validity of the proposed model was tested in the experimental part of the thesis. Sea water samples were collected on different locations in the target typical coastal area (Dubrovnik), with the marine traffic involving different types of vessels, within the period of 14 months and submitted for analysis with regard to faecal marine pollution indicators. Scientific (statistical) analysis of the sample analysis results and the number of vessels of different types at particular locations was applied. The analysis of the results indicates that there is a correlation between the marine pollution indicators (faecal coliform bacteria) with the smaller vessels (boats and yachts) on particular locations. It has also been found that there is no correlation between the cruise ships and bacteria on these ships’ routes. Consequently, the results of the sea sampling and chi-square tests have confirmed without any doubt not only the main scientific hypothesis but also the validity of the model for risk assessment of marine pollution by black waters from vessels. The final chapter of the thesis suggests recommendations for better protection against this type of marine pollution. Adoption of new regulation on protection against marine pollution by faecal waters from vessels, yachts and boats sailing in internal waters and territorial seas has been recommended. Measures to be applied by the county and local authorities have been proposed as well as recommendations for vessel owners on upgrade of their equipment and treatment of black waters on board their vessels.
Parallel keywords (Croatian)plovila onečišćenje mora crne otpadne vode fekalne koliformne bakterije procjena rizika multiplikativna matrica hi-kvadrat
Versionaccepted version
Resource typetext
Access conditionAccess restricted to students and staff of home institution
Terms of usehttp://rightsstatements.org/vocab/InC/1.0/
Noteaccepted version
URN:NBNhttps://urn.nsk.hr/urn:nbn:hr:187:348206
CommitterDolores Markotić